The Arab region is one of, if not the most vulnerable region to climate change. Due to its arid climate, and its water scarcity, the region faces huge issues that are even more exacerbated by climate change. Any changes in water availability and arable land have significant consequences for human security. In the Arab region, adaptation involves two major sectors: water and agriculture. These are not only the most vulnerable sectors to climate change in the area but are also sectors that can yield enormous benefits if adapted proactively.
Thus, many measures to adapt to climate change can be implemented along with the existing policies for water and agriculture sectors. Given the water scarcity in the region, the countries need to improve the capacity of water management and strengthen regional water governance. Additionally, there are many areas of intervention in order to mainstream adaptation measures in the water sector, these include (list not an exhaustive):
Mainstream water resources into the national and regional development
Promote rainfall harvesting
Extend sanitation systems in rural areas
Safeguard water supplies and human health
Resolve water allocation conflict
Implement desalination plants
Modify crop and cattle systems
Reduce losses in irrigation networks and improve irrigation efficiency
Reduce dam silting
All countries in the Arab region are making big efforts in order to adapt water sector to climate change. In their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) or Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), all countries have set adaptation in the water sector as one of their priorities.
The following table presents the adaptation approaches and measures in the water sector for each country.